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Chrysagon hyboria.jpg

The Hyborian Age is a time period on Earth  between the time of the sinking of Atlantis and the rise of the known ancient civilizations: "...between the years when the oceans drank Atlantis and the gleaming cities, and the years of the rise of the Sons of Aryas..."

Described in detail in the essay "The Hyborian Age", is a mythical time before any civilization known to anthropologists. Humans had settled Europe and Africa. They consider that during the Ice Age, Europe was quite different. The Mediterranean Sea formerly dried out intermittently, alternating with floods over the Straits of Gibraltar. Once there was a land-bridge across the English Channel between England and the Low Countries (but not across the Irish Sea) such that the Thames once flowed into a northern extension of the Rhine. And both the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea were once fresh-water lakes, the former (renamed the Ancylus Sea, after a fresh-water clam) covering much of the eastern half of what is now Sweden. The Nile was known as the River Styx, a westward turn at right angles just beyond the Nile Delta, plowing through the mountains so as to be able to reach the Straits of Gibraltar. Although the Black Sea is also dry, the Caspian Sea, then called Vilayet Sea, extends northward to reach the Arctic Ocean, so as to provide a barrier. Not only are the Baltic Sea and English Channel dry, but most of the North Sea and a vast region to the west, easily including Ireland, are too. Meanwhile, the west coast of Africa lies beneath the sea. There are also a few islands, reminiscent of the Azores.

Correspondences[]

There were many civilizations; Khitai is in present day China, far to the East; Corinthia is a Greek-like civilization. The Picts to occupy a large area to the northwest. The probable correspondences are listed below; notice that the correspondences are sometimes very loose.

Table of Correspondences
Kingdom, Region, or Ethnic Group Correspondence(s)
Acheron A fallen kingdom corresponding to the Roman Empire. Its territory covered Aquilonia, Nemedia, and Argos.
Afghulistan Afghanistan. Afghulistan is the common name of the habitat of different tribes in the Himelian mountains
Amazon Brazil, or South America generally. In the Hyborian Age, Amazon is a kingdom ruled by women, located near the Black Kingdoms.
Aquilonia The Carolingian Empire, medieval France, with occasional hints of England.
Argos Various seafaring traders of the Mediterranean.
Asgard Norway and Sweden. Ásgard is the home of the Æsir in Norse mythology.
Border Kingdom German Baltic Sea coast
Bossonian Marches Wales
Brythunia The continental homelands of the Angles and Saxons who invaded Britain, which is the origin of the name, though the civilization is similar to that of medieval Poland, Lithuania, Latvia.
Cimmeria Celtic Ireland/ Britain/Scotland of ancient times. The name is based on "Cymru", the Welsh word for Wales. Conan, a Cimmerian, has an Irish name, as do his parents.
Corinthia Ancient Greece
Darfar The name may derive from Darfur, Sudan.
Gunderland The Netherlands ? Gunderland, count of Hesbaye (?-778). Perhaps Germany
Hyrkania Mongolia, Ukraine (Hyrkanians = Scythians)
Hyperborea Finland, Russia and the Baltic countries (Hyperborea was a land in "outermost north" according to Greek historian Herodotus. It was an "evil empire", ruled by wicked wizards )
Iranistan Iran
Kambulja Cambodia
Keshan The name comes from the "Kesh", the Egyptian name for Nubia.
Khauran The Crusader kingdom
Khitai China, Marco Polo's Cathay. The Kira-Khitai were a prominent tribe amongst Mongol steppe tribes.
Khoraja Khazaria?
Koth The Kothian capital of Khorshemish corresponds to the Hittite capital of Carchemish. However Koth is situated in southern Europe including the ancient lands of Illyria, Thrace, the Adriatic sea, and the central Italic peoples. It reflects the cultures of the Roman Age.
Kush From the kingdom of Kush, Nubia, North Africa.
Meru Tibet
Nemedia The Germanic Holy Roman Empire. Nemedia was the rival of Aquilonia, and depended on Aesir mercenaries for their defence.
Ophir Ancient Ophir
Pictish Wilderness Pictish Scotland
Poitain Aquitaine (?) (likely, although the name reminds of Poitou, a province Northeast of Aquitaine, but not mediterranean, and not properly part of the South). Its location in the south of Aquilonia could point to Provence, which is in the south of France.
Punt The Land of Punt on the Horn of Africa.
Shem Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and Arabia (cf. Semites, purportedly the sons of Shem). It's territory also includes Greece, southern Italy and most of the Mediterranean, which in the Hyborian Age is above sea level. Along with Stygia it represents the ancient cultures.
Stygia Egypt. The name comes from Styx, a river of the underworld in Greek mythology. In earlier times the territory of Stygia included Shem, Ophir, Corinthia, and part of Koth.
Turan The Ottoman Empire (?) or Persian Empire (?) or Byzantine Empire (?). The name derives from Turan, the areas of Eurasia occupied by speakers of Ural-Altaic languages.
Vanaheim It's under water west of Scandinavia, when current Europe's map is superimposed. Vanaheim is the home of the Vanir in Norse mythology (Njörd - god of the sea; Freyja - goddess of fertility, love, beauty, and war).
Vendhya India,Pakistan & Bangladesh (The Vindhya Range is a range of hills in central India)referring to the Vedic era lands.
Zamora The name comes from the city of Zamora, Zamora province, Castile-Leon, Spain.
Zembabwei The Munhumutapa Empire (Its capital city was the Great Zimbabwe)
Zingara Iberian Peninsula.
Other Geographic Features
The River Styx The Nile
Zaporoska River The Don and/or the Volga. The river's name was probably influenced by Zaporizhian Sich, a settlement of the Cossacks in Zaporizhzhia (region). It was situated on the Dnieper river, below th
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